enter the state in the vicinity of Traveler's Rest. Tugaloo Old Town (now covered by Lake Tugaloo) is the first major Cherokee village.
deSoto "visits" the Cherokee and is supposedly
one of the first whites seen by the tribe, although written descriptions of
by the Spanish note the wide range of colors in the tribe, from "negro"
(black) to light skinned and "fair," according to Moyano and Pardo.
Massive uprising against North and South Carolina.
First treaty with whites (South Carolina).
Smallpox eradicates 25% of the Cherokee Nation. Nancy Ward is born
Battle of Taliwa
(numerous other spellings) - Accounts differ on exact events, however, the
Creek, who greatly outnumber the Cherokee, attack the Cherokee line five
times. During the fifth attack elderly Cherokee leader Kingfisher is
slain. His teenage wife picks up his weapon, and chanting a Cherokee war
song, Nancy Ward leads the Cherokee to victory, routing the Creek. The
battle marked successful expulsion of the Creek from much of North Georgia.
The only major remaining Creek settlement was near present Rome,
Impressed by the
British during the French and Indian War, the Cherokee side with them
during the American Revolution. The price for
the decision is immense. Colonel Pickens destroys Long Swamp village
(1782) and forces the Cherokee to cede land to settlers.
Treaty of Hopewell
(SC)- The Cherokee thought this would be the end of the settlers' invasion
of Cherokee land. Within 3 years bitter fighting had erupted as settlers
continued to move into the Cherokee Nation. This treaty is the basis for
the term "Talking Leaves," the name of the tribe's written language. The Cherokee
leaves, when they were no longer of use they withered and died.
Holston-Cherokee cede land in eastern Tennessee in exchange for President
Washington's guarantee that the Cherokee Nation will never again be invaded
by settlers. This treaty forces Americans to obtain passports to enter
Cherokee lands, and granted Cherokee the right to evict settlers.
The town of Hightower
moves from the vicinity of Rome, Georgia to present-day Cartersville,
further east on the Etowah River after a brutal attack on the village by
Tennessee governor John Sevier(more).
(Lower Towns) cease fighting, begin westward move.
Formation of the
Lighthorse, a loose knit Cherokee police force headed by The Ridge and James Vann.
Building of the
Augusta to Nashville Road, later known as the Federal Road.
Return J. Meigs
appointed "indian agent." Morovians start mission at Spring Place.
Jefferson agrees with the state of Georgia to removal of all American
Indians in exchange for the state's claim of western lands.
Start of a complex
series of events known as Revolt of the Young Chiefs
Death of Doublehead
at the hands of Ridge, James Vann and Alexander Saunders
earthquake. Actually 3 separate earthquakes with an epicenter near the
town of New Madrid, Missouri in the southeastern border with Kentucky. The
quakes were felt throughout the Cherokee Nation and sparked what is best
described as a religious revival among the Cherokee. Writer James Mooney
would call this movement the "Ghost Dance," after a similar Western Indian
Tecumseh agitates American Indians on the frontier to rise up and destroy
the settlers. A faction of the Creek Indians,
the "Red Sticks," revolt,
attacking Fort Mims, Alabama and massacre 250 men, women and children.
warriors fight alongside future president Andrew Jackson during two
campaigns (5 major battles) against the Red Sticks, saving both his army
and his life in separate battles.
cessions of 2.2 million acres from the Cherokee.
Cession of land east
of the Unicoi Turnpike. (Treaty of Turkey Town, instead of the 2.2 million
acres demanded by Jackson.)
Final cession of land
in Georgia, and part of a much larger cession, the Cherokee give up claims
to all land east of the Chattahoochee River.
Sequoyah finishes his work on a written
language (syllabary) for the tribe.
Within six months more than 25% of the Cherokee Nation learns how to read
Georgia begins press
for cession of remaining Cherokee lands, citing Jefferson's
commitment to the state.
Gold discovered in
Georgia. This discovery was on Cherokee land ceded to the U. S. in 1817
(Duke's Creek), however, gold was soon found inside the Cherokee Nation;
Publication of the Cherokee Phoenix begins with Elias Boudinot, editor.
encroachers in Beaver Dam on Cedar Creek, a few miles south of present-day
Rome, Georgia. Passage of the Indian Removal Act.
Chief Justice John
Marshall rules that the Cherokee have no standing to file suit in the
United States in Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia. He then instructs
attorney William Wirt on how to correctly file; Samuel Worcester and others arrested
for violation of Georgia law requiring whites to get permits to work in the
The Supreme Court of
the United States declares the Cherokee Nation to be sovereign (Worcester
v. Georgia). This has constitutional implications, disallowing the state
of Georgia from passing any law governing the Cherokee;Elias Boudinot
resigns as publisher of the Cherokee Phoenix under pressure from John Ross
because of his editorial support for removal;Georgia's
sixth land lottery and the gold lottery.
The Georgia Guard with the help of Stand Watie
destroys the printing press in the offices of The
Nov. 7 Ross and John
Howard Payne, in Red Clay, Tennessee, are illegally detained by the Georgia
Dec. 29 Treaty of New Echota signed in Elias Boudinot's home by
members of the Treaty Party.
May 23 Deadline for
voluntary removal. Georgia Guard had begun round-up 5 days earlier. U. S.
forces under command of Winfield Scott begin roundup in Georgia, Tennessee,
Alabama, and North Carolina. Cherokee are herded into "forts," gradually
making their way north to the Cherokee Agency (Rattlesnake Springs) or Ross's
Landing in southeastern Tennessee.
This is generally recognized as the beginning of The Cherokee Trail of Tears